In the year of the 100th anniversary of the revolution, the Presidential Library presents a special collection dedicated to the main events of 1917. It includes the archival materials, research works, sources of personal origin, printed press, and such illustrative sources as the photographs, postcards, maps, flyers and newsreels courtesy of Russian archives, libraries, museums and scientific centers.
At the turn of the 16th – 17th centuries in Russia there was a difficult internal and foreign political situation. Dynastic crisis caused by the death of the last of Rurikids; famine brought on by a succession of lean years, peasant uprisings; the Polish-Swedish intervention - all this has led to a civil war, questioning the very existence of the Russian state. Only the union of large popular forces – urban population, military men, free peasantry - helped preserve the independence of the country, restore the administrative and military systems and overcome the Troubles.
В 2012 г. отмечается 200-летний юбилей одного из самых значимых событий российской истории — Отечественной войны 1812 г. «Гроза двенадцатого года» оставила глубокий след в сознании современников и потомков, во всех сферах жизни нашей страны. По меткому выражению А. И. Герцена, «подлинную историю России открывает собой лишь 1812 год; всё, что было до того, – только предисловие». В коллекцию, посвященную этому событию, вошли многочисленные материалы, отражающие историю Отечественной войны 1812 г. во всем многообразии ее проявлений.
The Alexander Column - the highest column in the world made of solid stone - was installed in the center of the Palace Square in St. Petersburg in 1834 designed by the architect Montferrand. The collection timed to the jubilee includes memories of the celebration event on August 30 (September 11), 1834, descriptions and images of the monument in different historical periods.
February 19 (March 3 new style), 1861 Emperor Alexander II signed the ‘Manifesto on the Imperial donation of rights of free villagers to serfs’ and the ‘General Regulations on peasants emancipated from serfdom.’ As a result, over 20 million serfs gained freedom. The collection, covering this event includes editions which reflect the history of peasant question in Russia, elaboration and implementation of the Emancipation Reform, personalities of reformers, as well as essential legislative documents of the reform, memoirs of contemporaries and journalistic works on the peasant question.
To celebrate the 150th anniversary of the judicial reform, which was intended to provide a fast, fair and merciful justice to all Russian citizens, the Presidential Library makes available to a comprehensive collection of sources on the history of elaboration and introduction of the legislative reform in the Russian Empire, which were previously almost inaccessible.
The set of documents covering the campaign of 1860s of two Russian cruiser squadrons under the command of Rear-Admirals S. S. Lesovsky and A. A. Popov to the shores of the United States, includes some articles and reviews published in the national press from the time when the event took place to the present, as well as an essay published by the US Naval historical Foundation.
A series of turbulent events of the 20th century began for Russia from a war far in the east. Japan, which unleashed the war, blockaded and besieged Port Arthur, the main base of Russian naval forces in the Pacific. The defense and the subsequent surrender of the fortress became a tragic symbol of the war. Military setbacks, the largest of which were the overland Battle of Mukden and the Tsushima Naval Battle, the name of which became common, were one of the causes of the revolution of 1905-1907 forcing the Russian part to agree to a compromise and sign a peace treaty. The local war turned for Russia into the loss of the entire Navy and the loss of strategic positions in the Far East.
The year of 2014 marks the centennial of the World War I - a new type of war, which had acquired the features that later were common for the armed conflicts of the 20th century. These are: inseparability of the rear from the front, the total mobilization of the economics for military needs, information warfare on a national scale. Land battles enriched the science of war with tactics of tank attacks. At the sea was first deployed a submarine warfare, with attacks against civilian ships. In fact, during the war a new kind of armed forces developed – the air force, which became a full-fledged means of warfare. The Russian Empire in that war was part of the military and political alliance with France and Britain, which opposed the central powers - Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Великая Отечественная война (1941–1945) является составной частью Второй мировой войны (1939–1945) и одним из ключевых событий российской и мировой истории XX в. Народы Советского Союза и стран антигитлеровской коалиции совместными усилиями смогли преодолеть наступление фашизма. Памяти этой великой победы посвящена коллекция, в которую вошли свидетельства участников Второй мировой и Великой Отечественной войны и отклики на войну их внуков и правнуков, научные исследования и архивные документы, фото- и кинохроника, газеты военного времени и издания агитационно-пропагандистского характера, песни и музыка военных лет.
The collection includes about 900 items. These are official documents, memoirs, diaries, business and personal correspondence, newsreels, photos and paintings, audio records of radio programs, popular science films, historical studies, bibliography and more. Materials of the collection are brought together in thematic sections provided with brief summaries. Inside the section, the documents are grouped by biographical principle and arranged in chronological order - from birth to death of a person. In cases of a large number of documents, different headings are used, such as sources, studies and materials, childhood, coronation, travels, death, portraits and so on.
1945 was a watershed in the 20th century history: the end of the World War II marked the beginning of political, military, strategic, economic and ideological changes that have led to a new world order. The collection, which tells about the events of that period, includes studies, archival materials, newspaper and magazine chronicle, photos and cartoons (117 units in total).
The war between the Soviet Union and Japan completed the major conflict of the 20th century - the World War II. In accordance with the agreements reached at the Yalta Conference, the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan in August 1945. Less than in a month, the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria was defeated by decisive attacks of the Soviet troops. Signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender on September 2, 1945 marked the end of the World War II. The collection on the Soviet-Japanese War includes research works, essays, articles, newspapers and magazines, as well as caricatures (total of 76 units).