January 17 (29), 1860 in the city of Taganrog, Ekaterinoslav Province (now the Rostov Oblast), was born a Russian novelist, playwright and physician Anton Pavlovich Chekhov.
Being farmers, Chekhov's ancestors managed to pay off their serfdom and went in for trade. The family paid a great attention to children's intellectual development, so Anton studied at the gymnasium and later graduated from medical faculty of Moscow University. Having obtained the title of the district doctor, he practiced for some time.
While still a student, to earn a living, Chekhov wrote tales, jokes, witty remarks and short commentaries for cheap humor magazines such as “Strekoza” (Dragonfly), “Budil’nik” (Alarm), “Zritel’” (The Spectator) and others, and in 1884 the first book of his works was issued.
Excellent command of the Russian language, knowledge of the material and the skill to present it correctly, ensured for the author a success with the public and critics, which impelled Chekhov to do a serious literature. He started to contribute to “Novoye vremya” (New time), “Severny vestnik” (Northern Herald), and later with "Zhyzn’” (Life) and “Russkaya mysl’” (Russian idea).
In 1890, Chekhov traveled to Siberia and Sakhalin Island, where he carried out the census of the island’s population, collected a huge amount of documentary material about work, everyday life of the Sakhalin convicts and local residents. The results of this trip were reflected in the book "Island of Sakhalin”, and in a number of stories ("V ssylke” (In exile), “Palata N 6” (Ward № 6)) and essays.
In 1892, Chekhov bought a country estate in the village of Melikhovo, Serpukhov uyezd, Moscow Province. Here he treated neighboring peasants for free, was involved in organizing aid to the starving, struggling with a cholera epidemic, built rural schools, and wrote a lot. From 1892 to 1898 he had created "Man in a Case", "Petticoat government", "Case", "Yonich", "Goosebumps"; a large "rustic cycle" - "Guys," On a cart "," The New Villa ", "On business services”; the story "Three Years"; the plays “The Seagull”, “Uncle Vanya".
After his father's death, and also due to his health worsening, Anton Pavlovich moved to Yalta in 1898, where he continued to actively participate in public activities, being elected to the Board of Trustees of a girls' classical school and the Board of guardians for visiting patients.
In 1900, Chekhov was elected an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in the category of belles-lettres, but a year later he quit the Academy in protest against the exclusion of M. Gorky from its members caused by his political unreliability.
In 1904, due to the sharp deterioration of health, Anton Pavlovich went to Germany, to resort Bandenveyler, where he died July 2 (15), 1904 of tuberculosis. Civil funeral rites were held in Moscow in the building of the Moscow Art Theater. Chekhov’s ashes rest at the Novodevichy cemetery.
The creative legacy of Anton Chekhov entered the treasury of world literature, and performances of his plays, including those written in the last years of the "Three Sisters" and "The Cherry Orchard," is still performed on the stages of both Russian and foreign theaters and enjoyed great success.
The oeuvre of A. P. Chekhov makes part of the world fiction. As to his plays, including those written in his last years, “Three sisters” and “The cherry orchard”, are still staged both in Russian and foreign theaters and are very popular.
Lit.: Бочаров С. Г. Чехов и философия // Вестник истории, литературы, искусства. М., 2005; Кузичева А. П. А. П. Чехов в русской театральной критике. Комментированная антология. 1887-1917. М., 1999; Кузичева А. П. Чеховы. Биография семьи. М., 2004; Кузичева А. П. Чехов. Жизнь «отдельного человека». СПб., 2011; Кузичева А. П. Ваш А. Чехов. М., 2000; Меве Е. Б. Медицина в жизни и творчестве А. П. Чехова. Киев, 1961; Масанов И. Ф. Чеховиана: Систематический указатель литературы о Чехове и его творчестве. М., 1929 . Вып. 1; Паперный З. С. Чехов Антон Павлович // Большая советская энциклопедия. Т. 29. М., 1978; Труайя А. Антон Чехов. М., 2004; Хижняков В. В. Антон Павлович Чехов как врач. М., 1947; Шубин Б. М. Доктор А. П. Чехов. М., 1979.
From the Presidential library materials: