Submariner Day

19 March 1997

A native of the Pokrovskoye village near Moscow Yefim Nikonov was the first to create of a submarine vessel of the Russian fleet to attack enemy ships. In 1718 he filed in the name of Peter I a petition with the proposal to build a "secret vessel" that "will defeat ships with fire in a quiet sea". In 1721 the ship was tested in the presence of Peter I, after which the author was proposed to start construction of "a large secret vessel". But with the death of Peter I work on the Russian submarine stopped.

In 1834, at Alexander's foundry in St. Petersburg, according to a draft of a military engineer Schilder was built a submarine, which was for the first time equipped with optical and vent pipes. In 1866, designed by J. F. Alexandrovsky, was built a boat with a mechanical engine, that ran on compressed air. In 1880, S. K. Dzhewetski designed a construction of the first submarine with an electric motor.

In 1901, a scientist and a shipwright I. G. Bubnov, in collaboration with the captain of the first rank, M. N. Beklemishev and mechanical engineer I. S. Goryunov, drafted the first Russian military submarine "Dolphin", built in 1904 , at the Baltic Shipyard in St. Petersburg.

Fighting submarines were used for the first time in world history during the Russian-Japanese War. By the end of 1904 only in Vladivostok there were seven submarines of various designs which regularly went on duty and exploration of the Pacific Ocean. January 1 (14), 1905 they formed "a separate squad of destroyers" led by the commander of “Kasatka” submarine Lieutenant A. V. Plotto.

6 (19) March, 1906 the official classification of ships of the Imperial Russian Navy included a new class of ships – submarines, which were previously assigned to the destroyers.

In 1912 the Baltic Shipyard laid down the first diesel submarine type "Bars". In 1915-1916 seven boats of this type made part of the Baltic Fleet.

Creation of the submarine fleet during the Soviet era began with the construction of six submarines type "Decembrist", included in the first program of military shipbuilding of 1926/27-1931/32. From 1933 to the fleets’ armory also started to add the submarines type "Sch" ("Shuka" (pike)), type "M" ("Malyutka" (baby)), type "C" and type "K" ("Kreiserskaya” (cruise)).

During the period of 1930 to 1939 for the USSR navy were built more than 20 large, 80 medium, 60 small submarines and 20 submarine mine-layers. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War the Russian Navy possessed 212 submarines.

In mid-1950s in our country started a new stage in the development of the Navy-creation of the ocean nuclear missile fleet, and, above all, the construction of nuclear torpedo, and then missilesubmarines, and naval nuclear-missile systems of strategic purpose. Already by 1961 the Russian Navy had 9 nuclear submarines - 4 missile ones and 5 torpedo ones.

In the 1970's and 80's continued construction of the submarines with cruise missiles, nuclear and diesel-electric multi-purpose (rocket-torpedo) submarines.

After 1990, the pace and scale of construction of submarines plummeted, however, even today they form the basis of the combat power of the Russian Navy.
Upon order of the Commander of the Navy Admiral F. N. Gromov, from 1996 the day of March 19 is celebrated annually as the Submariner Day.


Lit.: Дмитриев В. И. Советское подводное кораблестроение. М., 1990; Ковалев Э. А. Короли подплава в море червонных валетов. Хроника начального периода советского подводного плавания 1918–1941. М., СПб., 2006; Ковалев Э. А. Рыцари глубины. Хроника зари российского подплава. М., СПб., 2005; Морозов М. Э. Подводные лодки ВМФ СССР в Великой Отечественной войне 1941-1945. Летопись боевых походов. Ч. 1-2. М., 2001-2003; Черкашин Н. А. Повседневная жизнь российских подводников: В отсеках Холодной войны. М., 2000.