July 30 (August 10) 1705, in Astrakhan, broke out a major popular uprising against the introduction by Peter I of new taxes and duties. The driving force behind the uprising was Streltsy, exiled by the tsar from Moscow after the Streltsy Uprising in 1698. The reason for the revolt was repressions, arbitrary extortions, and brutal methods of the Astrakhan governor, Timofei of Rzhev in implementing the tsar's ban on wearing Russian dress and beard.
The uprising, which broke out on the night of July 30 (August 10), was led by Streltsy, Ivan Sheludyak and Prokhor Nosov, the merchant Yakov Nosov and others. The rebels were joined by urban poor, workmen from fish and salt pans, boatmen, visiting merchants. Soldiers and Streltsy took the Astrakhan Kremlin and elected their own authority - the town assembly, which elected the Foremen Council. New taxes were repealed, salaries of Streltsy and soldiers increased, the decree to wear foreign clothes and shaving of beards repealed. The property of the executed governor Timofei of Rzhev and nobles was confiscated, and hated officers and nobles were killed on the spot or put to death by the resolution of the assembly.
Soon, the revolt spread to the neighboring fortified towns: Krasny Yar, Cherny Yar, Guriev, Terki and surrounding areas. However, rebels failed to engage in the the rebellion other cities of the Volga and the Don. Two attempts to capture Tsaritsyn, first by chieftain Deriglaz, then by Strelets A. Khokhlach were also unsuccessful. Military failures caused a split among the rebels. Wealthy merchants and the top Streltsy sent messengers to the tsar with the acknowledgement of their guilt.
Fearing the spread of the revolt on the Volga regions and the Don, in January 1706 the government sent two detachments of troops - the advanced one, led by Boyar P. I. Khovanskiy and the principal, led by Field Marshal B. P. Sheremetev - to suppress the riot.
13 (24) March 1706, tsar’s troops under the command of Sheremetev stormed Astrakhan, defeating the rebels. Initially, participants in the uprising, and even their leaders were promised amnesty. But soon the arrests began, the rebels were sent to Moscow for investigation, trial and punishment. In Moscow at different times, for taking part in the uprising were executed and died from torture 365 Astrakhan inhabitants.Lit.: Голикова Н. Б. Астраханское восстание 1705-1706 гг. М., 1975; Декин Н. И. К истории Астраханской губернии (до 1917 г.). М., 1999; Князьков С. Очерки из истории Петра Великого и его времени. СПб., 1914; Леонтьев Н. О значении Петра Великого для России вообще и в частности для Астраханского края. Астрахань, 1873; Макаренко Ю. А. История Астраханского края с древнейших времён до конца XIX века. Астрахань, 2007; Марков А. С. Петр I и Астрахань. Астрахань, 1994; Рыбушкин М. Записки об Астрахани. Астрахань, 1912; Соловьёв С. М. История России с древнейших времён. Т. 8. М., 1993.