The 210th Anniversary of the Birth of Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, count, statesman and diplomat, Governor General of East Siberia

23 August 1809

On August 11 (23), 1809 in an old noble family was born Nikolai Muravyov-Amursky, count, future Russian statesman and diplomat, honorary member of St. Petersburg Academy of Science, Governor General of East Siberia.

N. Muravyov-Amursky was educated in Page Corps. Having graduated from it in 1827 he enlisted as an ensign into Life Guards Finland regiment. He participated in Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 and in suppression of the Polish uprising of 1831. In 1833 Muravyov he retired for health reasons but 5 years later returned to the army. In 1840-1844 he had worked in one of the detachments of the Black Sea shore line. As the head of a line he had done a lot for strengthening the coast. In 1841 Muravyov addressed emperor Nikolas I proposing him to abolish serfdom but did not find understanding. In September of 1847 Emperor appointed him Governor General of East Siberia.

In 1847-1861, as the Governor General, Muravyov actively developed and explored the lands of East Siberia, getting involved in the work many of exile Decembrists. He had played a significant role in the history of expanding of the Russian possessions in Siberia, having supported Admiral G. I. Nevelsky, Far East researcher, in his exploration of the mouth of Amur and discovering of a free access to the Pacific Ocean for Russia. Owing to Muravyov’s resolution, who developed the economy of Ussuri krai and practically occupied it with military forces, the ground for signing of the Treaties of Aigun (1858) and Beijing (1860) was prepared. According to the treaties, the territory which was in concurrent possession of Russia and Chine, was annexed to Russia. For his diplomatic activity N. Muravyov was conferred the title of count Amursky in 1858.

In 1861 Muravyov-Amursky left the position of Governor General and was appointed a member of the State Council. From 1868 until his last days he spent almost all his time in Paris.

On November 18 (30), 1881 Nikolai Muravyov-Amursky died and was buried at Montmartre cemetery in Paris. In 1990 his remains were transferred to Vladivostok and reburied in the historical center of the city.

In 1891 in Khabarovsk, on Amur shore, the monument to N. Muravyov-Amursky by Russian sculptor A. M. Opekushin was erected.

Lit.: Бараев В. Муравьёв-Амурский, полномочный представитель царя // Алфавит. 2000. № 30; Баранов А. Е. На реке Амуре в 1854–55 гг. Воспоминания офицера из отряда H. H. Mуравьёва // Русская Старина. 1891. Т. 71. № 8. С. 327—354; Заборинский А. М. Граф Н. Н. Муравьёв-Амурский в 1846–56 гг. // Русская Старина. 1883. Т. 38. № 6. С. 623—658; Муравьёв-Амурский Н. Н.: Биобиблиографический указатель // Амурская областная научная библиотека им. Н. Н. Муравьёва-Амурского. Благовещенск, 2002; Николай Николаевич Муравьёв-Амурский: биографическая справка [Электронный ресурс] // Амурская областная научная библиотека им. Н. Н. Муравьёва-Амурского. Б. д. URL: http://www.libamur.ru/page/778.html.

Based on the Presidential Library’s materials:

Барсуков И. Граф Николай Николаевич Муравьев-Амурский по его письмам, официальным документам, рассказам современников и печатным источникам: (материалы для биографии) в 2 кн. М., 1891. Кн. 1;

Барсуков И. Граф Николай Николаевич Муравьев-Амурский по его письмам, официальным документам, рассказам современников и печатным источникам: (материалы для биографии) в 2 кн. М., 1891. Кн. 2;

Невельской Г. И. Подвиги русских морских офицеров на крайнем востоке России 1849—1855. Приамурский и Приуссурийский край. СПб., 1878;

Память России: Во Владивостоке появится мемориал генерал-губернатору графу Муравьёву-Амурскому. 28 июня 2011 г. // Новости.