1 (14) September 1917 upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic was proclaimed.
After the revolutionary events of February 1917, in Russia at the same time were created two authorities - the power of the bourgeoisie represented by the Provisional Government and the revolutionary-democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry - the Soviets. 3 (16) July 1917 in Petrograd began spontaneous demonstrations of soldiers, workers and sailors against the government which led to the July political crisis that resulted in the end of the period of "dual power" and a shift of power to the hands of the Provisional Government. 1 (14) September 1917 according to the Decree of the Provisional Government, Russia was proclaimed a republic. All issues of the future structure of Russia were under jurisdiction of the Constituent Assembly.
The Decree of 1 (14) September 1917 stated: "General Kornilov Coup is suppressed. But the turmoil that he spread in the ranks of the army and the country is great. Once again, there is a great danger that threatens the fate of the country and its freedom. Considering it necessary to put an end to the uncertainty of political system, keeping in mind the unanimous and enthusiastic recognition of Republican ideas, which affected the Moscow State Conference, the Provisional Government announces that the state system of the Russian state is the republican system, and proclaims the Russian Republic. Urgent need for immediate and decisive action to restore the shocked state system prompted the Provisional government to pass the power of governing to five individuals from its staff, headed by the Prime Minister.
The Provisional Government considers its main objective the restoration of public order and the army's fighting efficiency. Believing that only the concentration of all the living forces of the country can help the Motherland out of the difficulty it is in, the Provisional Government will seek to expand its membership by attracting to its ranks all those who consider eternal and general interests of the country more important than temporary and particular needs of certain parties or classes. The Provisional Government has no doubt that this task will be implemented by it in the coming days. "The decree was signed by the Minister-President A. F. Kerensky, and the Minister of Justice A. S. Zarudny.
12 (25) September was convocated the All-Russian Democratic Conference. At the enlarged meeting of its presidium was decided to create a Pre-Parliament. A special constitutional commission was created to elaborate the future Constitution of Russia. The Commission was chaired by Professor of public law N. I. Lazarev, and then by a known historian V. M. Gessen.
October 25 (November 7) 1917 the activities of all bodies of the Provisional Government were stopped.
Lit.: Милюков П. Н. «История второй русской революции». Минск, 2002; Смыкалин А. С. «Конституция Российской демократической Федеративной республики 1917 года» // Чиновникъ. 2002. № 202 (18); Суханов Н. Н. Записки о революции: В 3 т. Т. 1. Кн. 5, 6. М., 1991.