October 16, 1918 were published the decrees of All-Russian Central Executive Committee, "Basic principles of a comprehensive labor school" and "Regulations on the Comprehensive Labor School of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic". In pedagogical community the decrees were known as a "Declaration on the comprehensive labor school." They proclaimed new principles and methods of teaching and educational activities of the Soviet school and formed a comprehensive school system.
Elaboration of "Basic principles of the comprehensive labor school" and "Regulations on the comprehensive labor school" was held during 1918 by the State Board of Education under the guidance of public and political figures: A. V. Lunacharsky, N. K. Krupskaya, P. N. Lepeshinsky. In August 1918, the draft "Regulations" was unanimously approved by the 1st All-Russian Congress on Education.
The “Declaration on the comprehensive labor school" emphasized the relationship between school and politics which was a guiding principle of the soviet pedagogy. Particular attention was paid to issues of democratization of school: establish general accessibility of schools at all levels; introduction of universal compulsory primary education; the school was declared secular. A comprehensive school of two stages was created: 1st stage - 5 years, 2nd stage - 4 years.
It was supposed to elaborate new programs basing on the principle of organization of educational material on the basis of social work. Content and methods of educational work, proclaimed by the "Declaration", demanded the consideration of the interests of students, their activity and initiative, the development of child art, close connection between school and life. In the "Declaration" pointed out the tremendous educative role of children's physical work, productive work of students was recommended, work on school grounds, self-service for students at school; various types of craft work for students of the 1st stage were named. In high school, it was proposed to introduce the productive work of students in industry and agriculture. A large place was given to the complete personal development of students, in particular, to physical and aesthetic education: gymnastics, games, sport, rhythmic, drawing, modeling, singing and music. The "Declaration" also proclaimed respect for children. Students were provided with various opportunities for initiative, student organization with wide powers were created.
The main purpose of the new school was declared to ensure equal secondary and higher vocational education for all people, which was essential in the situation of a rapid industrialization of the country. "The whole system of normal schools from kindergarten to university represents one single school, one continuous ladder. This means that all children should engage in the same type of school and begin their education the same way, that they all have the right to walk the stairs up to its highest levels ", was stressed in the Declaration."Lit.: Блонский П. П. Трудовая школа (1919) // Блонский П. П. Избранные педагогические и психологические сочинения. Т. 1. М., 1979; Котряхов Н. В., Холмс Л. Е. Теория и практика трудовой школы в России (1917-1932 гг.). Киров, 1993; Левитин С. А. Трудовая школа. Т. 1. M., 1919; Народное образование в СССР. Общеобразовательная школа. Сб. док-тов 1917-1973. М., 1974; Основные принципы единой трудовой школы. От Государственной комиссии по просвещению 16 октября 1918 г. // Народное образование. 1999. № 10. С. 40-47; Панченко О. Г., Бирич И. А. Развитие педагогической мысли в России: философия образования и воспитания (по страницам Антологии гуманной педагогики). М., 2003; Синицкий Л. Д. Трудовая школа, её принципы, задачи и идейные корни в прошлом. М., 1922; Трудовая школа в свете истории и современности. Сб. статей под ред. M. M. Рубинштейна. Л., 1925; Ястер И. В. Народное образование в рамках культурной политики большевиков в 1920-е гг. // Новейшая история Отечества ХХ-ХXI вв. Сб. научных трудов. Саратов, 2006. Вып. 1. С. 282-291; Ястер И. В. Становление начальной школы и проблемы содержания образования в 1917-1934 гг. // Вопросы теории и практики начального обучения: Сб. научных трудов. Саратов, 2004. С. 5-10.
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