Annexation of Georgia to Russia in 1801, Russian influence expansion at Transcaucasia had aggravated the relationship between Russia and Persia. Supported by England and France which wanted to strengthen their position at the East and taking advantage of the fact that Russia had been involved in the war with Napoleon, Persia unleashed the war against Russia in 1804.
In spite the fact that Persia had been provided with significant subsidies and armament by England and France, Russia won the war of 1804-1813.
On October 12 (24), 1813 in the village of Gulistan (Karabagh) Russia and Persia concluded the Gulistan peace treaty. From the Russian side it was signed by general N.F. Rtischev, the Commander in Chief at Caucasia line and Georgia, from the Persian side – by Mirza Abol Hasan Khan, privy councilor of the Persian court.
By this treaty Russia was confirmed in possession of Daghestan, Georgia, Mingrelia, Imeretia, Guria, Abkhazia and the northern part of Azerbaidgan with all the khanates: Karabagh, Gandja, Shekeen, Shirvan, Derbend, Kouba, and Baku, together with part of Talish. Russia was obliged to provide aid to the heir to the throne named by the shah in case of a possible intervention. Also by the treaty Russia obtained an exclusive right to have a navy on the Caspian Sea. Russian merchants were given the right to trade freely in Persia and the Persian ones – in Russia.
Persia had not accepted the loss of Transcaucasia. During 4 years it had struggled for reconsideration of the clauses of Gulistan peace treaty. Supported by the Great Britain, Persia insisted on the return to the borders of 1801 that is that the entire East Caucasus was under the rule of the shah. Russia pressed for the weakening of the English influence in Persia and strengthening of its economic positions. In 1818 as a result of the legation of A.P. Ermolov in Persia the Gulistan peace treaty was acknowledged in full measure by Persia and came into effect.
Lit.: Балаян Б. П. Дипломатическая история русско-иранских войн и присоединения Восточной Армении к России. Ереван, 1984; Шишов А. В. Схватка за Кавказ. М., 2007.