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Birth of Edward Alexandrovich Gylling, the first head of the Karelian labor commune

30 November 1881

November 30, 1881 in the city of Kuopio (Finland) in the family of railway engineer was born Edward Otto Wilhelm Gylling, a prominent statesman, a specialist in the field of economic statistics, PhD.

From 1892 to 1900 Edward Gylling studied at Jyväskylä Lyceum, then entered the Helsingfors University and graduated from the historical-philological faculty of the University in 1903 as Master and in 1909 - PhD from 1910 to 1918 he worked as assistant professor of statistics at the same university, he taught a course in economic statistics. From 1912 to 1918 he worked as a statistician city of Helsingfors (now - Helsinki). He knew Finnish, Russian, Swedish, German.

In 1904 Gylling was one of the organizers of the Socialist Students Union in the city of Helsingfors. In 1905, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Finland. From 1906 to 1908 he was the responsible editor of the publication of the party «Sosialistinen Aikakauslehti» («The socialist journal»), organized jointly with Yrjö Sirola, Otto Ville Kuusinen, Sulo Wuolijoki.

From 1908 to 1918 Gylling was a member of the Finnish parliament from the Social Democratic Party from 1913 to 1918 was elected a member of the Central Committee of the Social-Democratic Labour Party. From 1918 he was a member of the Central Committee of the Finnish Communist Party of a few compositions.

He took an active part in the revolution of 1905-1907, in 1917 during the Finnish Revolution of 1918. Edward Alexandrovich was a member of the revolutionary government, he was a people's commissioner for finance, then - Chairman of the Commission on the conclusion of an agreement between the RSFSR and the workers' government of Finland.

From April to the end of September 1918 he lived illegally in Finland, then he moved to Sweden, where he lived until April 1920.

In May 1920, Gylling came to the Soviet Union and became a member of the RCP (B). By order of V. I. Lenin , he was involved in the preparation of an outline for the Karelian Labor Commune (CPC). Gylling was convinced that the autonomy of the region will contribute to the rapid recovery of the economy, will awaken the creative initiative of the people. June 8, 1920 the All-Russian Central Executive Committee adopted a decree on the formation of the Karelian Labour Commune in the RSFSR.

From July 1920 to February 1921 Gylling was the first chairman of the Revolutionary Committee, in February 1921 and August 1923 - Chairman of the Executive Committee of the CPC. In July 1923 Karelian Labor Commune was transformed into the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Edward Gylling was appointed the first chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, and held this position until 1935.

The talent of the organizer, economist’s knowledge was useful to him in the years of the Republic of Karelia leadership. Particular attention he paid to the restoration of the destroyed after the First World War the national economy, as well as the further development of economy of Karelia. He contributed to the electrification of the country, the development of forestry and mining industries. In the 1920-1930s they were built: Kondopoga hydroelectric power station, power Solomenskaya, Lososinskaya woodworking plant in the city of Petrozavodsk, were laid new motorway: Kem-Ukhta-Kestenga Louhi, Petrozavodsk Syamozero. Gyuling was the initiator of the project to create Nadvoitsky hydroelectric.

Edward Gylling paid special attention to the development of science and culture of the region. On his initiative, in 1930, was created the first scientific institution of the republic - Karelian Research (complex) Institute (now - Institute of Language, Literature and History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karelian Research Centre). The first head of the institution, from 1930 to 1935 was Edward Alexandrovich. November 8, 1931 in Petrozavodsk was opened the Karelian State Pedagogical Institute (now - Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology of Petrozavodsk State University) - the first higher education institution in the Republic of Karelia, the initiator and one of the teachers who was also Edward Gylling. He had a lot of support to Professor B. V. Perfiliev, who discovered Borodino (Konchezerskaya) biological station in the territory of Karelia.

Gylling was elected a delegate to the XI-XVI Russian and the II-VII All-Union Congress of Soviets, a member of the USSR Central Executive Committee and the Council of Nationalities. In 1930, Edward Alexandrovich was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor.

In 1935, Edward Gylling was removed from his post in connection with charges of bourgeois nationalism. From 1935 to 1937 he worked as a research associate at the Institute of World Economy in Moscow.

June 14, 1938 by the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court he was sentenced to death. Posthumously rehabilitated (1955).

Lit.: Афанасьева А. Начало : образование Карельской Трудовой Коммуны и интернациональная помощь зарубежного пролетариата (1920-1921 гг.) // Краевед Карелии. Петрозаводск, 1990. С. 3-11. В содерж.: Э. А. Гюллинг; Гольденберг М. Л. Эдвард Гюллинг: в поисках исторических смыслов // Карелия на этнокультурной и политической карте России : материалы науч.-практ. конф., посвящ. 90-летию Респ. Карелия, Петрозаводск, 21 мая 2010 г. Петрозаводск, 2010. С. 64-67; Гюллинг Ф. Е. Эдвард Гюллинг : к 130-летию со дня рождения : сб. ст. и воспоминаний. Иркутск, 2011; Гюллинг Э. А. // Народные избранники Карелии : депутаты Гос. Думы Рос. империи от Олонец. губернии, депутаты Учредит. Собр., члены Олонец. губерн. Совета, депутаты представит. органов власти СССР, РСФСР, РФ от Карелии и высш. представит. органов власти Карелии, 1906-2008. Петрозаводск, 2008. С. 184; Килин Ю. М. Карелия в политике советского государства, 1920-1941. Петрозаводск, 1999. Из содерж.: Указатель имён (Гюллинг Э.). С. 273; Килин Ю. Рождение карельской автономии // Studia Slavica Finlandensia. Helsinki, 2002. Т. 19. С. 88-117. Из содерж.: В дело вступает Эдвард Гюллинг. С. 90- 95; Левкоев А. А. Финляндская коммунистическая эмиграция и образование карельской автономии в составе РСФСР (1918-1923 гг.) // Общественно-политическая история Карелии XX века : очерки и ст. Петрозаводск, 1995. С. 24-50; Неизвестная Карелия : док. спецорганов о жизни респ., 1921-1940. Петрозаводск, 1997. Из содерж.: Именной указатель (Гюллинг Э.). С. 358; Советы Карелии, 1917 - 1992 : док. и материалы. Петрозаводск,1993. Из содерж.: Именной указатель (Гюллинг Э. А.). С. 535; Такала И. «Дело Гюллинга – Ровио» // Их называли КР : репрессии в Карелии 20—30-х годов. Петрозаводск, 1992. С. 34-73.

From the Presidential library materials:

Вестник Карело-Мурманского края : научно-популярный, краеведческий, иллюстративный журнал. № 25 (40). 29 августа : [К трехлетию Правления Мурман. ж. д.]. Л., 1925. Из содерж.: Значение Мурманской ж. д. для АКССР : беседа с пред. Совнаркома АКССР т. Э. Гюллингом;

Советская Карелия : очерки партийного, советского и культурного строительства АКССР. М.; Л., 1933;

Экономика и статистика Карелии. Петрозаводск, 1925-1928 // Отечественная периодика в фонде Президентской библиотеки: коллекция.

Материал предоставлен Национальной библиотекой Республики Карелия.