7 (18) December, 1718, in the German city of Rostock (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany) was born Elizabeth Katharina Christine, the future ruler (regent) of the Russian Empire during the minority of the Emperor Ivan VI, Anna Leopoldovna.
Elizabeth was the daughter of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Charles Leopold and Catherine Ivanovna (daughter of Tsar Ivan V Alekseevich and niece of Emperor Peter I).
In 1722, very young, Elizabeth was brought to Russia. Empress Anna Ioannovna (sister of Tsarevna Catherine Ioannovna), not having direct heirs and wishing to keep the Russian throne for her family, advanced her niece closer to the court. Princess was educated by a French, Madame Aderkas, while Theophan Prokopovich was asked to instruct her in the Orthodox faith.
12 (23) May, 1733, Elizabeth became Orthodox, and was named Anna in honor of the Empress.
In July 1739, Anna Leopoldovna married Prince Anton Ulrich of Brunswick. 12 (23) August 1740, the couple had a son Ivan, who 5 (16) October 1740, by the decree of Anna Ioannovna, was declared heir to the throne.
17 (28) October 1740, after the death of Anna Ioannovna, it was E. I. Biron who became regent of the empire, according to the will of the empress. However, his regency was not long; as a result of court intrigue and clashes between Biron and the prince and princess, due to the doubts about the authenticity of the signature of the Empress on the decree of the regency, he was deposed. The night of 8 (19) to 9 (20) November, Cristoph von Munnich, with the approval of Anna Leopoldovna, accompanied by a small detachment of soldiers, arrested Biron. Subjected to the same fate was his family and supporters.
By the Manifesto of 9 (20) November, 1740, Anna Leopoldovna, titled Grand Duchess and Imperial Highness, was declared regent for her son, Ivan VI Antonovich.
Having come to power, Anna Leopoldovna did not practically rule the state. The power belonged to the Cabinet of Ministers, and Munnich was declared "the first in the Empire" after Prince Anton Ulrich and became the chief manager of both domestic and foreign policy. Within the ruling party there was a constant fighting. January 28 (February 8), 1741 the Cabinet was divided into three departments: Military Affairs, led by Munnich; of External and Maritime Affairs, headed by A. I. Osterman, and of Domestic Affairs – led by A. M. Cherkassky and M. D . Golovkin. Munnich had under his jurisdiction only land forces, irregular forces, artillery, fortification, cadet corps and the Ladoga Canal; he had to report to the prince on everythin. Unhappy with this situation, Munnich submitted his resignation, which was accepted. 3 (14) March 1741, old field marshal was fired "from the military and civilian affairs."
In March of 1741 was established a special "commission to review the state revenues," that was subordinate to the Cabinet. In order to regulate trade and industry, was published statutes of bankrupts (15 (26) December 1740), and "rules or work regulation for cloth factories" (2 (13), September 1741) to monitor the maintenance of machines, the size and quality of the cloth, as well as the attitude of entrepreneurs to workers.
In foreign policy, Russia and Austria were converging. In the summer of 1741, began the war with Sweden, which wanted to regain territories lost during the Northern War.
In 1741, Elizabeth (daughter of Peter I and Catherine I), instigated by French and Swedish diplomats, decided to make a coup. November 25 (December 6), 1741, supported by the Guard, removed from power the under-age Emperor Ivan VI and his mother, regent Anna Leopoldovna.
12 (23) December 1741, Anna Leopoldovna and her family were sent to Riga; in January 1744 - to the city of Ranenburg, Ryazan province; and in July - to the north of Russia, to Kholmogory, where Anna Leopoldovna died 7 (18) March 1746.
March 21 (April 1) 1746, she was solemnly buried in the Church of the Annunciation of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.
Apart from Ivan and Catherine, born before the exile, Anna Leopoldovna gave birth to three more children: Elizabeth, Peter, Alexis. After his wife's death, Anton Ulrich could go away from Russia, but refused to leave the children and lived in Kholmogory until his death in 1774. In 1756, former emperor Ivan Antonovich was transferred from Kholmogory to Shlisserburg fortress, where he died in July 1764.
In 1780, Empress Catherine II ordered to send the descendants of the former ruler to Gorsens, having assigned them a supply.
Lit.: Грот Я. К. Дети правительницы Анны Леопольдовны в Горсенсе. Рассказ по датским известиям // Русская старина. 1875. Т. 12. № 4. С. 761-768; Погребение принцессы Анны Леопольдовны и мужя её, герцога Антона Ульриха. 1746 и 1776 гг. / Сообщ. М. А. Корф // Русский архив. 1870. Т. 1. Изд. 3-е. СПб., 1875. С. 417-419; Поленов В. А. Отправление Брауншвейгской фамилии из Холмогор в датские владения. (Извлечено из подлинных бумаг, хранящихся в государственном архиве министерства иностранных дел). / Публ. Д. В. Поленова // Русская старина. 1874. Т. 9. № 4. С. 645-666; Савваитов И. О предике вологодского епископа Амвросия (Юшкевича) на бракосочетание принцессы Анны Леопольдовны с герцогом Антоном Ульрихом 3 июля 1739 года // Русский архив. 1871. Вып. 2. Стб. 193-200; Яковлев П. Л. Жизнь принцессы Анны, правительницы России. М., 1814 г.
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