The military unit was established in 1775 by the ataman of the Don Cossack Host A. I. Ilovaisky as the Don Cossack Ataman Regiment. In 1827, it received the name of the Cossack Ataman Regiment of His Imperial Highness Tsesarevich. In 1859, it became a Guards Regiment. Since 1891, it had been the Life Guards Ataman Regiment of His Imperial Highness the Heir to the Throne Tsesarevich. It was considered one of the best Cossack regiments. Traditionally, its soldiers were the Don Cossacks from Khopra and the Upper Don. The regiment participated in the Russian-Turkish wars of 1787-1791, 1806-1812, 1828-1829, 1877-1878, the Russian-Prussian-French war of 1806-1807, the Patriotic War of 1812, in the suppression of the Polish uprisings of 1830-1831, 1863-1864, the First World War. One of the famous representatives of the regiment of recent times is the Don Cossack poet, emigrant Nikolai Nikolaevich Turoverov.