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Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Jassy

9 January 1792

December 29, 1791 (January 9, 1792) in a Bessarabian city of Jassy Russia and Turkey signed a peace treaty, which ended the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-91. The treaty confirmed annexation of Crimea and Kuban to Russia and established the Russian-Turkish border along the Dniester River.

The Russian-Turkish War of 1787-91 was caused by revanchist aspirations of Turkey, who wanted to get back the territory of Crimea and to prevent the strengthening of Russian influence in the Transcaucasia. Russia, in turn, sought to firmly establish itself in the Northern Black Sea region and to expand their holdings in the Caucasus. In early August 1787 the Turkish government issued an ultimatum to Russia, demanding the return of the Crimea, the recognition of Georgia as a vassal estate of the Turkish Sultan and consent to inspect the Russian merchant ships passing through the straits. The ultimatum was rejected, and 13 (24) August Turkey declared war on Russia.

In October 1787 the Turkish Fleet blocked the mouth of the Dnieper and landed a 6 000 force at the Kinburn Spit in the Black Sea, where it was waited for by the Russian troops under the command of Count Alexander Suvorov. Allowing the Turks to land, the commander took with them into battle and destroyed them. The main forces of the Russian army under the command of G. A. Potemkin assaulted Ochakov, and in December 1788 the fortress fell. In July 1789 the joint force of Russian and Austrian troops, led by Suvorov, defeated the Turks near Focsani (Romania), and two months later - near Ramnicu Sarat River. In the next few months, the Russians took Ackerman and Bender, and the Austrians - Belgrade and Bucharest.

Success of the Russian arms and new convincing victories of the Russian army and navy, such as taking of Ismail by Suvorov December 11 (22), 1790 and the defeat of the Turkish Fleet by the Russian naval commander Ushakov at Cape Kaliakra July 31 (August 11), 1791, forced the Turks to start negotiations. On the Russian side the talks were led by Prince Potemkin, and after his death - by Earl A. A. Bezborodko.

The treaty confirmed the terms of Kucuk-Kaynarka peace treaty regarding the transfer of Crimea to Russia. Russia also gained control over the entire northern Black Sea region. Russian-Turkish border was pushed back along the Dniester River, but the territories of Bessarabia, Moldavia and Wallachia were returned to Turkey. The Turkish side, in turn, rejected the claims on Georgia and acknowledged the patronage of Russia over Kartl and Kakheti, proclaimed by the Treaty of Georgievsk in 1783.

Lit.: Век Екатерины II: Россия и Балканы. М., 1998; Договоры России с Востоком политические и торговые. Сост. Т. Юзефович, СПб., 1869. С. 41-49; Елчанинов А. Г. Александр Васильевич Суворов // История русской армии от зарождения Руси до войны 1812 г. СПб., 2003. С. 350; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://militera.lib.ru/h/sb_istoria_russkoy_armii/27.html; На южных рубежах // Астапенко М., Левченко В. Будет помнить вся Россия. М., 1986. С. 16; То же [Электронный ресурс].URL: http://militera.lib.ru/bio/astapenko/02.html; Османская империя: проблемы внешней политики и отношений с Россией. М., 1996; Петров А. Н. Вторая турецкая война в царствование имп. Екатерины II. 1787-1791. Т. 1-2. СПб., 1880; Шахмагонов Н. Ф. От Очакова до Измаила: К 200-летию окончания русско-турецкой войны. М., 1991.

From the Presidential library materials:

Дубровин Н. Ф. Вторая турецкая война в царствование императрицы Екатерины II (1787-1791 гг.). Составил Генерального штаба полковник А. Н. Петров : рецензия чл.-кор. Акад. наук ген.-м. Н. Ф. Дубровина. СПб., 1882.