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Birthday anniversary of the Empress Anna Ioannovna

7 February 1693

January 28 (February 7) 1693, in Moscow was born a Russian Empress (1730-1740) Anna Ioannovna - a daughter of Tsar Ioann Alexeevich and Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova, niece of Peter I.

Until the age of 15, Anna lived with her mother in the village of Izmailovo. She studied history, geography, reading, calligraphy, foreign languages, dance.

In 1710, Peter I, wishing to strengthen the influence of Russia in the Baltic States, married Anna to the young Duke of Courland, Frederick William, a nephew of the King of Prussia. However, shortly after the wedding, the Duke died. At the insistence of Peter I, Anna stayed to live in Courland, in Mitau, under the control of the Russian representative P. M. Bestuzhev-Rumin.

After a sudden death of Emperor Peter II in January 1730, the members of the Supreme Privy Council invited the Duchess-Dowager of Courland to ascend the throne. At the same time, Golitsyn initiated a reform of the political system in Russia through the virtual elimination of the autocracy and the introduction of a limited monarchy. To this end, the members of the Council proposed the future Empress to sign special "Conditions" under which she was deprived of the possibility to make independent political decisions: make peace and declare war, appoint to public office, change the tax system.

However, the lack of unity among the supporters of the Supreme Privy Council, who tried to limit the power of the empress, allowed Anna Ivanovna supported by the nobility and guardsmen to regain all the prerogatives and publicly break the "Conditions". Manifesto of 4 (15) March 1730 abolished the Supreme Privy Council and a year later it was replaced by the Cabinet of Ministers, which included A. I. Osterman, G. I. Golovkin, A. M. Cherkassky.

During the decade of the reign of Anna Ioannovna, Russian foreign policy largely continued the course charted by Peter I. The Peace Treaty of Belgrade of 1739 gave Russia the opportunity to end the war with Turkey of 1735-1739 and annex the steppe between the Bug and the Donets, the right to send its goods to the Black Sea; Azov was recognized a neutral city.

The mainstay of Anna Ioannovna, who payed little attention to public affairs, were aristocratic Baltic Germans, who took dominant position in the government headed by her favorite E. J. von Biron. In 1730, was established the Secret Investigation Office (central body of political investigation), which replaced the Preobrazhensky Office abolished under Peter II. In a short term the Office gained extraordinary strength as Empress had been constantly afraid of conspiracies. During the reign of Anna Ivonnovna the decree on primogeniture was repealed, the Land Noble Cadet Corps was established, new Guards regiments were formed - the Life Guards Izmaylovsky Regiment (Infantry) and the Life-Guards Mounted Regiment (cavalry), the service for nobility was limited to 25 years.

In an effort to continue the dynasty, Anna Ioannovna appointed heir to the throne her infant nephew, Ioann Antonovich.

17 (28) October 1740, the Empress died and was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Shortly after her death a palace coup brought to power Elizabeth, daughter of Peter I.

Lit.: Костомаров Н. И. Русская история в жизнеописаниях её главнейших деятелей. Кн. 3. СПб., 1913; Строев В., Бироновщина и Кабинет министров. Очерк внутренней политики императрицы Анны. Ч. 1-2. М.; СПб., 1909-1910; Шубинский С. Н. Императрица Анна Иоанновна, придворный быт и забавы. 1730-1740 // Русская старина. 1873. Т. 7. № 3. С. 336-353; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL:

From the Presidential library materials:

Бироновщина и Кабинет министров: очерк внутреннй политики императрицы Анны : историческое исследование пр.-доцента В. Строева. М., 1909. Ч. 1: (1730-1735 г.);

Книга записная именным письмам и указам императриц Анны Иоанновны и Елизаветы Петровны Семену Андреевичу Салтыкову 1732-1742 гг. М., 1878;

Князьков С. А. Картины по русской истории, изданные под общей редакцией [и объяснительным текстом] С. А. Князькова. № 36: Д. Н. Кардовский. Императрица Анна и её двор (1730-1740 гг.). М., 1908;

Корсаков Д. А. Воцарение императрицы Анны Иоанновны. Казань, 1880. Вып. 1;

Описание коронации ея величества императрицы, и самодержицы всероссиискои, Анны Иоанновны, торжественно отправленнои в царствующем граде Москве, 28 апреля 1730 году. М., 1730;

Осокин Н. А. Полтораста лет назад. СПб., 1881;

Титлинов Б. В. Правительство императрицы Анны Иоанновны в его отношениях к делам православной церкви. Вильна, 1905.