On June 13 (24), 1710 during the Northern War between Russia and Sweden (1700-1721) the Russian troops led by Peter I victoriously entered the Swedish fortress Vyborg. Peter I attached a great value to occupying Vyborg because the possession of the town ensured the access to the Baltic Sea for the Russian state.
The action plan of the Russian army and Navy for capturing Vyborg was a part of the general plan of the 1710 campaign at the Baltic theater. The Swedish fortress represented a constant threat to St. Petersburg as well as to the islands of Kotlin and Kronshlot where was basing the regular Russian fleet formed by Peter.
The first effort of capturing the fortress of Vyborg was made back in 1706. However, an unsuccessful reconnaissance, the lack of siege artillery and unfavorable weather conditions became the main reasons for the first siege failure. Four years later Peter set out for another campaign against Vyborg. It was done after the victory of the Russian troops near Poltava in 1709. Due to the defeat of Swedes in Poltava battle it was now possible to redeploy the main forces of the Russian army to the Baltic coast and concentrate them against the main Swedish naval strong points and fortresses – Vyborg, Revel, Riga and Arensburg.
In March of 1710 the siege corps led by Admiral General F. M. Apraksin, made a difficult passage over the ice-covered Gulf of Finland from Kotlin island to Vyborg. The suddenness helped to seize the north-western suburbs of the town and to approach it as close as possible from the side of the sound and the palace on the island. The Russian troops cut the roads which had connected the fortress of Vyborg with the inner Finland having deprived the besieged of the opportunity to gain reinforcement.
The fortress siege, effectuated by the army, had also be supported by the Navy. Peter I decided to benefit from the difficult ice situation in the Gulf of Finland in order to lead the Russian Navy close to Vyborg and leave behind the Swedish Navy. On May 9 (20) the Russian Navy, composed of over 250 ships of different types, was at the walls of Vyborg. The Swedish ships, having reached the fortress only by the end of May, could not help the besieged garrison.
The Russian commandment had proposed to the Swedes to yield the fortress, but they refused. Thus, on June 1 (120 the bombardment of the citadel began. It had lasted for 5 days and caused some fires in the town. On June 9 (200 at the War Council was decided to attack the fortress but the operation was postponed on Peter’s I requirement. Tsar wanted to participate in it himself. However, the fortress’ commandant, without waiting for the assault, started negotiations with the Russian commandment and on June 12 (23) the Swedish garrison capitulated. The next day, on June 13 (24), 1710 the army of Peter the Great entered the defeated town.
Lit.: Адамович Б. Осада Выборга. 1710 год // Военный сборник. 1903. № 9; Бородкин М. М. История Финляндии. Время Петра Великого. СПб., 1910; Бородкин М. Двухсотлетие взятия Выборга. Л., 1993; Васильев М. В. Осада и взятие Выборга русскими войсками и флотом в 1710 г. М., 1953; Взятие Выборга в 1710 г. Выборгская крепость. Летопись ее с 1710 по 1872 г. // ОР РНБ. Ф. 1000. СОП. Оп. 3. № 183. Л. 1; Дубравин А. И. Взятие русскими войсками и флотом Выборга в 1710 г. // Русское военно-морское искусство. М., 1951; Мошник Ю. И. Гарнизон и население Выборга весной – летом 1710 г. // От Нарвы к Ништадту. Петровская Россия в годы Северной войны. СПб., 2001; Реляция о взятии Выборга в 1710 г. // Мышлаевский А. З. Северная война на Ингерманландском и Финляндском театрах в 1708-1714 гг.: Документы Гос. Архива. СПб., 1894; Славнитский Н. Р. Осада и взятие Выборга русскими войсками в 1710 г. // Victoria. Gloria. Fama. Материалы Международной научной конференции. СПб., 2003. Ч. 3. С. 93-97; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://terijoki.spb.ru/vyborg-fortress/vf_vyborg1710.php; Широкорад А. Б. Взятие Выборга // Северные войны России. М.; Минск, 2001; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://militera.lib.ru/h/shirokorad1/4_10.html.
Based on the Presidential Library’s materials: