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The Treaty of Turkmenchay between Russia and Iran signed

22 February 1828

On February 10th (22nd), 1828 Russian and Iran signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay putting the end to second Russian-Iranian (Russian-Persian) war of 1826-1828.

The Treaty included 16 articles and proclaimed peace between Russian and Iran (Persia). The Article 1 said: “Henceforth and forever should remain the peace, friendship and the complete accord between His Majesty the all-Russian emperor and His Majesty the Persian shah, their heirs and successors, their countries and subjects”.

The new border between Russia and Persia was now established along the river Araks. Russia was given the Erivan and Nakhchivan khanates (the East Armenia). The government of Iran was obliged not to prevent Armenians from moving to the Armenian region created in the territory of these khanates which contributed to the unification of the Armenian people within the Russian Empire.

The fortress Abbas-Abad along with the adjacent territory was also given over to Russia. Russia obtained the full right to navigate all of the Caspian Sea. Iran had to pay the contribution of 20 million rubles in silver (later it was decreased to 10 million rubles). In its turn Russian acknowledged the prince Abbas Mirza the shah’s heir.

Along with the Treaty was signed the ‘Act on trade’ according to which the Russian merchants were given the right to trade freely in the entire territory of Iran; the import of the Russian and Iranian goods were subject to the single 5% tax.

 On behalf of Russia the treaty was signed by I. F. Paskevitch and the councilor of state A. M. Obrezkov sent by the Ministry of the Foreign Affairs; on behalf of Iran – Abbas-mirza and mirza Abul-Khasan-khan. A. S. Griboyedov had a significant impact on the negotiations results: he was editing the conference minutes and was able to make some important specifications to the Treaty text which was prepared in St.-Petersburg, in particular to the part relating to the migration conditions and amnesty for the frontier regions inhabitants. The final version of the Treaty project text was also composed and edited by Griboyedov.

Let us note, that after the first Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813 between Russia and Iran, there was signed the Treaty of Gulistan (1813), which was broken by Iran. The Treaty of Turkmenchay strengthen the position of Russia in Transcaucasia weakening the positions of the Great Britain in Iran and ensuring the geopolitical balance in Caucasus.

Lit.: Грибоедов А. С. Записка о переселении армян из Персии в наши области // Грибоедов А. С. Полное собрание сочинений. Т. 3. Пг., 1917; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://feb-web.ru/feb/griboed/texts/piks3/3_4_v3.htm; История дипломатии. М.; Л., 1945. Т. 3; Туркманчайский мирный договор между Россией и Ираном. 10 февраля 1828 г. // Под стягом России:  Сборник архивных документов. М., 1992; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL:http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/FOREIGN/turkman.htm; Юзефович Т. П. Договоры России с Востоком политические и торговые. СПб., 1869; Фадеев А. В. Россия и Кавказ первой трети XIX в. М., 1960; Шостакович С. В. Дипломатическая деятельность А. С. Грибоедова. М., 1960.