May 16 (28), 1812 in Bucharest was signed the Treaty which ended the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812.
Taking advantage of the fact that Russia was obliged to fight two wars at the same time, against France in Europe and Iran at the East, Turkey had decided to requite for the defeat in previous wars with Russia. The Turkish Navy, violating a series of Jassy treaty provisions, blocked the passage through Bosphorus and Dardanelles sounds for Russian ships. In November of 1806 in reply to this the Russian government brought troops to Moldavia and Wallachia, Danube principalities, vassals of Ottoman Empire. The commander of the troops called Moldavia Army was appointed General I. I. Mikhelson.
In February of 1807 the Russian Mediterranean squadron commanded by Vice-admiral D. N. Senyavin blocked Dardanelles sound. On May 10-11 (22-23), 1807 took place the Battle of the Dardanelles in which the Turks lost three battleships. In spite of this fact in June of 1807 the Turkish Navy made another effort with view to end the blockade of Dardanelles. On June 19 (July 1) near Athos semi-island in Aegean Sea took place a serious battle between the Russian and Turkish squadrons. The Russian Navy had once more gained a glorious victory.
In Caucasus the Russian troops supported by Georgian and Azerbaijan volunteer corps captured the town of Poti in 1809, then Sukhumi in 1810 and Akhalkalaki Fortress in 1811. In Balkans the Russian army commanded first by General P. I. Bagration and then, from February 1810, by General N. M. Kamensky, had occupied several tens of fortresses, including Isaccea, Tulcea, Macin, Ismail, Braila, Silistra, Ruse, Lovech.
On June 22 (July 4), 1811 near the town of Ruse took place a large battle between the Turkish and Russian armies. As a result the army of 46 000 servicemen commanded by M. I. Kutuzov repulsed the attack of 60 000 Turks led by Akhmet Pasha and defeated it, passing to the offensive. In November the same year near a Rumanian town of Slobozia the armies clashed again and this battle was decisive for the whole war outcome. Akhmet Pasha, having mustered again the army of 60 000 men, moved it against 26 000 soldiers led by Kutuzov. The Russian commander, having enticed the enemy from the right bank of Danube to the left one, cut the Turks off the way to Ruse Fortress and encircled them. On November 23 (December 5), 1811 Akhmet Pasha capitulated.
In spite of the efforts taken by Halib Efendi, the sultan’s representative, to protract the negotiations, the Russian Commander in Chief Kutuzov managed to end them one month before Napoleon’s I Bonaparte invasion into Russian. Turkey withdrew from the union with France, enabling Russian to transfer a part of Moldova army for Western borders’ defense.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest concluded at the end of Russo-Turkish war, 1806-1812, Bessarabia including Khotyn, Benders, Akkerman, Kiliya and Ismail fortresses as well as the territories of the Western Georgia were now under the Russian rule. Turkey was given back a part of Moldova and the territory of Walachia. The Treaty of Bucharest provided the privileges for Danube principalities, the domestic self-government for Serbia and the right for patronage from Russia for Turkish subjects -Christians.
In general, the Treaty of Bucharest strengthened the military-political situation in Russia. On the eve of Russia's war with France, Turkey withdrew from the alliance with the French, which provided the security of southern Russian border, and the Danube (Moldova) army was able to thrown its forces at western borders of Russia.
Lit.: Андрианов П. М. Русско-Турецкая война 1806–12 гг. // История русской армии от зарождения Руси до войны 1812 г. СПб., 2003; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://militera.lib.ru/h/sb_istoria_russkoy_armii/index.html; Внешняя политика России XIX и начала XX в. Т. 6. Сер. 1. М., 1962; Русско-турецкий Бухарестский мирный договор 16 мая 1812 г. [Электронный ресурс] // Международная военно-историческая ассоциация. Б. д. URL: http://www.imha.ru/knowledge_base/library/r-library/1144524324-russko-tureckijj-bukharestskijj-mirnyjj.html; Строков А. Д. История военного искусства. Т. 4. СПб., 1994; Фадеев А. В. Россия и Кавказ первой трети XIX в. М., 1960; Фадеев А. В. Бухарестский мирный договор // Большая советская энциклопедия. Т. 4. М., 1971; ; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://slovari.yandex.ru/~книги/БСЭ/Бухарестский%20мирный%20договор%201812/.
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