5 (17) November 1804 emperor Alexander I signed the Charter of approval and the Statute of the Kazan Imperial University, one of the oldest Russian universities.
During the early reign of Emperor Alexander I, in the course of reforms concerning education, were developed new principles of organization of popular education and new types of educational institutions. In 1802 the Ministry of National Education was established in Russia; in 1803 preliminary rules for national education were issued. In November 1804 the Russian Emperor approved the first General University Statute, the statutes of the Moscow, Kharkov and Kazan universities, along with statutes of educational institutions within the jurisdiction of universities.
For a long time the Kazan University had been the most eastern higher educational institution in Russia. The educational district headed by the Kazan University included the Volga Region, the Penza and Tambov Provinces, Prikamye and Ural Region, Siberia and Caucasus. During the first decades of its existence, the university became a major center of education and science. Here was formed a series of scientific areas and schools: mathematical, chemical, medical, linguistic, geological, geo-botanical, etc.
According to the Statute of 1804, the university was to open 28 sub-departments within the four following departments: of moral and political sciences; physics and mathematics; medicine; philology including a sub-department of oriental languages.
Originally, the university occupied a part of the First Imperial classical school’s premises. But soon it was needed to reconstruct the existing educational institutions and build the new ones. In 1822-1842 the university complex was constructed: the main building, observatory, anatomical theater, library, chemical laboratory including a physics study, clinic, supplementary services buildings. The works were led by N. I. Lobachevsky who was the university’s chancellor in 1827-1846.
In 1835 was introduced the University Statute of Emperor Nikolai I establishing three departments: of philosophy (departments of philology and physics & mathematics), of law and of medicine. In 1863, upon the introduction of the University Statute of Alexander II, they were reorganized into four departments: of history & philology, of physics & mathematics, of law and of medicine.
From 1834 the university started to issue Academic notes. Different scientific societies, which had formed under the Kazan University, also played a great role in the development of sciences: in 1839 was created the Kazan Economical Society; in 1878 – the Society of Archaeology, History and Ethnography. In 1875-1883 in the University was created the Kazan Linguistics School. In 1892, on the initiative of V. M. Bekhterev, was organized the Neurology Society. In the Kazan University worked eminent scholars who made important scientific discoveries and founded various scientific schools. Among them are: A. M. Butlerov, A. V. Vishnevsky, E. K. Zavoysky, N. N. Zinin, K. E. Claus, N. I. Lobachevsky, V. A. Engelgardt, and many other.
29 June 1925, by the resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the University was given the name of V. I. Ulyanov-Lenin. During Soviet age, on the basis of the Kazan University’s departments were opened several new higher educational institutions: the Department of Medicine received independence under the name of the Kazan State Medical Institute; the Department of Chemistry was reorganized into the Kazan Chemical Institute; the Department of Economics – into the Kazan State Institute of Finance & Economics; the Department of Law became the Institute of Soviet Law. In 1932, on the basis of the Aerodynamics Department of the Kazan State University was created the Kazan Institute of Aviation. In April of 1945, on the basis of the university’s academic departments was established the Kazan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The University’s Academic Library is named after N. I. Lobachevsky representing one of the largest and oldest repositories of Russia. Its holdings include about 5 million volumes, over 150, 000 of which are literary monuments.
In 1955 the Kazan University was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labor; in 1979 – the Order of Lenin. In 1996 by the Decree of the Russian President, the University was put on the State list of the most valuable sites of cultural heritage of the peoples of the Russian Federation. In 201 the University was given the name of the Kazan (Privolzhye) Federal University.
Currently, the Kazan (Privolzhye) University includes 14 departments, the A. M. Butlerov Chemical Institute; the Institute of Oriental Studies; the Institute of Language, the Institute of Lifelong Education; 2 branch offices (in Naberezhnye Chelny and Zelenodolsk).
Lit.: Астафьев В. В. Очерки истории Казанского университета. Казань, 2002; Биографический словарь профессоров и преподавателей Императорского Казанского университета: За сто лет (1804-1904). Ч. 1-2. Казань, 1904; Булич Н. Н. Из первых лет Казанского университета (1805-1819): Рассказы по архивным документам. Ч. 1-2. Казань, 1887-1891; Вишленкова Е. А. Казанский университет Александровской эпохи: Альбом из нескольких портретов. Казань, 2003; Вишленкова Е. А., Малышева С. Ю., Сальникова А. А. Terra Universitatis: Два века университетской культуры в Казани. Казань, 2005; Загоскин Н. П. Материалы для истории кафедр и учреждений Казанского университета (1804-1826 гг.). Казань, 1899; Ионенко И. М., Попов В. А. Казанский университет в годы Великой Отечественной войны. М., 1985; Исаков А. П. Летопись Казанского государственного университета: история в фактах, подтверждённых документами. Т. 1-2. Казань, 2004-2005; Казанский университет (1804-2004): Биобиблиографический словарь. Т. 1-3. Казань, 2002-2004; Михайлова С. В., Коршунова О. Н. Казанский университет: между Востоком и Западом. Казань, 2006; Ректоры Казанского университета 1804-2004 гг.: очерки жизни и деятельности. Казань, 2004; Усманова Д. М. Профессора и выпускники Казанского университета в Думе и Госсовете России, 1906-1917: Биографические очерки. Казань, 2002.
Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет: сайт. 1995-2012. URL: http://www.ksu.ru.
From the Presidential library materials:
Егоров А. Н. Общественно-политическая ситуация «оттепели» (1953-1964 гг.) в восприятии современников-преподавателей и студентов Казанского государственного университета: автореф. дис. … к. и. н. Казань, 2010;