On August 30 (September 10), 1721 in the town of Nystad (Finland) the Russian-Sweden treaty was signed. It has marked the end of the Northern war of 1700-1721. According to the treaty Russia received Livonia (with Riga), Estland (with Revel and Narva), a part of Karelia, Ingermanland (the land of Izhora) and other territories.
For these acquisitions Russia paid Sweden the indemnity of 2 million efimok (Russian silver ruble), returned Finland occupied by Russian troops and gave it the right to export from Russia free of duty the bread for the sum of 50 thousand rubles every year. Sweden in its turn handed over to Russia Baltic countries and some other territories ‘in absolute and eternal possession and ownership’.
Thus the main geopolitical problem that Russia had from XV century was solved – it obtained a free access to Baltic Sea. Owing to this achievement naval powers started to depend on Russia both in arms and commerce, and supplies of materials for shipbuilding.
After a brilliant victory in the North War, on October 22 (November 2), 1721 Peter I was granted the title of ‘Father of the Fatherland, All Russia Emperor Peter the Great’ by Senate and Holy Synod. From that time on the Russian state was called the Russian Empire.
Lit.: Ништадтский мирный договор между Россией и Швецией [Электронный ресурс] // Исторический факультет Московского государственного университета. 1997-2009; URL: http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/FOREIGN/nishtadt.htm; Никифоров Л. А. Внешняя политика России в последние годы Северной войны. Ништадтский мир. М., 1959.
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