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Adrianople treaty signed

14 September 1829

On September 2 (14), 1829 in the town of Adrianople (today Edirn town in Turkey) Russian and Ottoman Empire signed Adrianople treaty that had marked the end of Russian-Turkish war of 1828–1829.

The immediate reason for the war was a rebel of Greeks against Turkey and the assistant pact signed by Russia, Great Britain and France on June 24 (July 6), 1827 in London according to which these countries were obliged to help Greeks in their struggle against Turkish oppression.

On October 8 (20), 1827 the sultan announced that he rejected Akkerman Convention of 1826 that guaranteed a free passage of trade ships through Bosporus and Dardanelles straits and granted the autonomy to Serbia, Moldova and Valakhia, and called for a ‘sacred war’ against Russia. The emperor Nicholas I declared that he would not begin the war if Turkey fulfilled previous commitments and met the demands of the allies. There was no answer to this proposal and on April 14 (26) 1828 Russia declared war to Turkey.

The army of P.H. Vitgenshtein the field marshal had been sent to Danube, and the corps of I.F. Paskevitch the general – to Caucasus. In 1829 P.H. Vitgenshtein was replace by I.I. Dibitch the general. The Russian army occupied Silistry and moved to Balkans. It laid siege Adrianople the garrison of which capitulated on August 8 (20), 1829. On Caucasus the Russian forces occupied Erzrum and reached Trapezunt. After the news of Adrianople capture Turkey decided to ask for peace.

The treaty was signed in Adrianople on September 2 (14).  On the Russia side it was signed by A.F. Orlov and F.P. Palen, from the side of Turkey – Mehmed Sadyk-efendi and Abdul Kadyr-bay. The treaty consisted of 12 clauses and a separate deed on advantages of Moldova and Valakhskoye principality. The mouth of Danube with islands, the whole Caucasus Black sea coast from the mouth of Kuban river to the north border of Adjaria, as well as the fortresses Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsykh including adjoining regions, went to Russia. Turkey acknowledged the annexation of Georgia, Imeretia, Mangrelia and Guria, as well as khanates Erivan and Nakhicheva to Russia that were taken by it from Iran according to the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828. The right of Russian citizens to have a free trade on the territory of Turkey was confirmed. Also Ottoman Empire authorized Russian and foreign trade ships to pass freely through Bosporus and Dardanelles. Russian citizens being on the territory of Turkey were recognized outside the jurisdiction of Turkish authorities. Turkey undertook to pay to Russia a contribution of 1,5 thousand of Holland coins (3 million rubles in gold) in one and half year. Moldova and Valakhia became practically autonomous. Turkey also accepted the terms of London’s agreement of 1827 on giving autonomy to Greece.

Adrianople treaty had become a great victory of Russian diplomacy. It prepared favorable conditions for the Black Sea trade and completed the annexation of major Transcaucasia territories to Russia.

Lit.: Адрианопольский мирный договор между Россией и Турцией // Под стягом России. М., 1992; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/Turk/XIX/1820-1840/Mir_adrianopol_1829/text.htm; Война, открывшая эпоху в истории Балкан: к 180-летию Адрианопольского мира / РАН, Ин-т славяноведения. М., 2009; Дибич И. И. Адрианопольский мир 1829 года. СПб., 1879; Фадеев А. В. Россия и Восточный кризис 20-х годов XIX века. М., 1958; Шеремет В. И. Турция и Адрианопольский мир 1829 г. М., 1975.

From the Presidential library materials:

Головачёв В. Ф. История Севастополя, как русского порта. СПб., 1872;

Юнгфер К. И. Рассуждение о политическом состоянии Российской империи от ее начала до Адрианопольского мира, заключенного в 1829 году, в отношении к прочим Европейским государствам, и касательно народного просвещения. М., 1831.