Norwegian traveler, oceanographer, public figure. In 1888, he was the first to cross the southern part of Greenland by ski and discovered the solid glaciation of its inner regions. In 1890, he put forward a project of reaching the North Pole on a ship drifting along with ice. In 1893–1896, he drifted across the Arctic Ocean from the Novosibirsk Islands to the Spitsbergen archipelago on a specially built "Fram" ship, making extensive oceanographic and meteorological observations. In 1902, he created the Christiania-based International Laboratory for North Sea Research, was one of the organizers and a member of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. In 1913, he sailed along the shores of the Arctic Ocean to the mouth of the Yenisei, traveled to the south of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. In 1920-1921, he used to be a High Commissioner for Refugees of the League of Nations and one of the organizers of help to the starving Volga Region. He also became a Nobel Peace Prize Laureate for humanitarian activities (1922).